#1
What are the tiny notes called in a piece of music? I'm talking about the ones that are written in the music physically smaller and are played really fast before the next note.
#5
Could you elaborate a bit on that? I have no idea how to use one or how to play it.
#6
Sure; it's usually used in the context of what's called an acciaccatura, which essentially means that it's an ornamentation that receives no significant time. It leans into the next note ("acciaccatura" is actually a short appoggiatura, which literally means "to lean upon") and will be heard though its duration is not rhythmically significant. On guitar, if you played a very quick hammer-on, say from E to F, where the F was written as a quarter note but both occupied the space of a quarter note, the E would be written as a grace note. You'll hear it played, but it doesn't receive significant time, hence its being an ornamentation.

Is that helpful at all?
#7
with a slash, you play it before the beat
without a slash, you play it on the beat and its usually longer and more stressed.
i have a 'white guitar'
#8
The accaciatura and appogiatura get played differently depending on the music (depending on placement, and intent). Most modern performers don't treat them differently except for pianists, where the accaciatura at a second is often played as a "crushed" note (at the same time, but very short). They can also be interpreted as ossias written on the same staff (optional, or only played the second time through).

Ornamentation isn't simple, and how its interpreted varies over time... if you really want to understand the difference, get a book on the subject. Otherwise it's safe to treat them the same... maybe with a little less temporal emphasis on accaciaturas in slower music.

e; you think I'd know how to spell it...
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#9
For the classical appogiatura, the time value of the "small note" is subtracted, from the "large note", and the time value of the "small note" is exactly what it looks like. However, a slash is sometimes used instead of another flag.
#10
The way I was taught, acciaccatura (with slash) is "crushed" into the note; an appogiatura (no slash) is accented and intrudes into the note for half of its value (2/3s if the ornamented note is dotted)

Of course ornamentation varies by style; ask your conductor what he wants to hear.