#1
is what I am. Good examples of guitar players or fiddle players? Samples? More specifically, what are typical chord progressions or modes used in trad irish music?
Phish Phan
DeadHead
Moe.ron
If there's a jam out there, I'm probably listening to it.

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#2
Mixolydian or dorian modes are most common. Jigs are in 6/8, reels are in 4/4, slow airs are in free time. Ornamentation is of utmost importance for an irish sound. Drones or open strings are also good for emulating uileann pipes. I'm guessing you're looking for dance tunes, but if you're into the ballads like myself, I'd look up Paul Brady, he's astounding. Cormac Breatnach is a fantastic player with modern influences, and anything Iarla ó Lionard associates himself with is great. As you can see, I'm not too into the proper traditional stuff myself so I can't help you too much there.