#1
I'm doing some individual theory studying through a college theory book my cousin gave me, and I'm doing well with it so far. One exercise discussing minor scales asks you to write out a melody they give you. Then they ask to identify one of the following in each sequence "P, TP, PT, P+" wtf does this mean? I can't find anything in google or in my book about this...
#4
Quote by Twist of fate
Penises pleasantly take plenty (of) peanut tacos

It's a tongue twister, man



I was trying to think of something clever along those lines but you've put an end to that


oh that is great!

"'Evil men have no songs.' How is it that the Russians have songs?"
#5
probably something along the lines of partials.

So like P+ might mean an augmented partial?

Most books assign random variables to functions for the sake of saving space.
These variables aren't the same for different books most times.

If it isn't in the book, then I suggest you ask you cousin, assuming that he has studied out of it.
Otherwise, go seek the advice of a music theory professor.