#2
Tabs are every note of the song written verbatim (for the most part). Chords are just that: the same song but all chords instead of the single notes.
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#3
Yup, a tab is an entire song, including chords, solos, twiddly bits and all that. There are also chord sheets on UG which are just give the basic chord structure of a song.

A chord itself is a technique, multiple notes from a scale played simultaneously to form a harmony.
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#4
Unless he's asking how to differentiate between chords and single notes in tabs.
When reading tab, if a chord is to be played, the notes that comprise the chord will be stacked one on top of the other in a verticle line like this G major chord:

e: 3
B: 0
G: 0
D: 0
A: 2
E: 3

When a chord is to be played as an arpeggio, or each string plucked individually one after the other, the notes will slant at an angle one way or the other, either from the top left down to the bottom right or the bottom left up to the top right, depending on if you are going to ascend up the chord or descend down it. That would look something like this:

e:3
B:-0
G:--0
D:---0
A:----2
E:-----3

or

e:-----3
B:----0
G:---0
D:--0
A:-2
E:3

Tab is always played from the left to the right, so the leftmost note will be first in line to be played. Above on the decending G, the high e string, 3rd fret is first in line, then the B and so on. In the bottom example, the low E 3rd fret is first, followed by the A 2nd fret and so on. I'm not sure if this is exactly what you were asking for, but hopefully it'll help you out.