#3
Close your eyes, strike a random key on a piano, guess the note.

But if that doesn't sound right for you, practice singing scales in degrees.
Start on C Maj, sing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 1, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,
Then sing the Maj Triad for C: 1, 3, 5, 1, 1, 5, 3, 1
Just sing each number in the pitch of that scale degree then go back down.

I sing into my guitar tuner sometimes just to see how close I am. In a short amount of time you should become very familiar with pitches. Also try to sing a certain pitch without listening to it beforehand, then check with a tuner or instrument to see if you got it.
#4
Quote by Amarant
Is there a guess-the-note game somewhere? Thanks!



ha ha, not as far as im aware mush, im in the same boat as you, ive been playing for three years and only in the past six months have i been able to spot chords in songs and notes in solos so the only thing i could recommend would be you should play your guitar as much as you can humanly manage and your skill and knowledge of notes will come with time.
#5
There's always GNU Solfege. Nice free and open source ear training software. Works on Windows, Linux and Mac. Will do pretty much exactly what you're asking.

http://www.solfege.org/

Of course, plenty should be done right at the instrument, trying to figure out something, or frankly, just listening to what you're doing. Amazing how well you can recognize a dorian mode after playing it a few zillion times.

Grep.