Go on Amazon and buy a book called "It's Not Rocket Science" by Ben Miller (Yes, the British comedian who is roughly 50% of Armstrong and Miller). It covers all the important stuff of physics, chemistry and biology, without getting bogged down in maths and without the threat of an exam looming over you draining all of the fun from it.
I will invent teleportation technology, and use it on all takeaway delivery drivers. I will hold the entire world's takeaways to ransom, with the demand that all governments disband their armed forces and destroy all of their weapons, and hand over all authority to me. Once I have secured control, I will let everyone have the pizza they ordered. If everyone complied without resistance, I may even reheat them before delivery.
Given that the German National Socialist party bought off or made agreements with almost every other contesting political party there wasn't a great deal the people of Germany could have done.
Really? To my knowledge the only agreement the Nazi party made was with President Hindenburg when Hitler became Chancellor. But it was only through elections that the Nazis gained enough seats in parliament to form a coalition government with Hindenburg's party, without which Hitler would not have been in a position to be on Hindenburg's cabinet. From that point, yes, the people couldn't really do anything, but there were enough Nazi voters and, from what I was taught, enough apathy among potential opposition voters to allow the Nazis to get that foothold.
Any chance of an extension until the weekend? I missed about 5 days last week as I had to be away from home and my guitars, and I'm so close it being recordable, and don't want to fail for the hundredth time.
Guys. You don't get it. In order to secure international fear of this country, Obama will have to rule with an iron fist. He is already making it sound like he's taking full control with the whole gun ban ordeal, what next???
Oh noes, he's stopping untrained members of the public from owning objects that have the sole purpose of killing a lot of people rapidly from a distance. What atrocities will he do next? Give medical treatment to sick people? Outlaw honest, legitimate rape? Let them fagmosexuals go round getting pronounced husband and husband or wife and wife? Would somebody please think of the poor children who will live in an America where you can't go out, shoot some gays, rape lesbians until they admit they like it, and die of perfectly treatable illnesses!
First of all, I am a Christian, and this dude is ****ing crazy, or he's trolling.
There is so much wrong with this story, in the kid's argument and the teacher's.
Your argument was weak.
Evolution has neither been proven or unproven, there is no hard evidence either way. Its just an educated guess. Obviously species can adapt to their environment, there is plenty of evidence showing that. Just look at dog breeding for example. However there is no proof that organisms can evolve outside of their genus. You can't breed a dog to become a cat, or a monkey to become a human. Yeah of course I believe in the possibility of evolution, but many people disregard the fact that it is just a theory.
Everyone is entitled to have their own beliefs.
And we're also entitled to point out how much you missed the point of science. It is not "dogs breeding to become cats" or even "monkeys breeding to become humans". It is the organisms that are best adapted to their environment surviving to breed and pass on the traits that allow them to survive long enough to reproduce. Over time (between tens of thousands and millions of years), the descendants may have changed sufficiently to be a different species from their ancestors. That's how humans and monkeys evolved from a common ancestor (contrary to what you think about evolution, humans didn't evolve from monkeys). At some point, a group of these ancient primates were in an environment where walking upright, not climbing trees and and omnivorous diet gave them better chances of survival, so those with a more upright posture were the ones who survived and reproduced in each generation, over thousands of years leading to changes in body structure until all of this group walked upright, by which time they were genetically sufficiently different from their primate ancestors that they were a separate species. Through thousands of these changes, these creatures became Austrilopithacus, Homo Habilus, etc and eventually Homo Sapiens. (OK I've simplified it a bit but you get the gist). Don't believe me? Go look at all the genetic data from modern humans and primates, and preserved DNA in fossils, all of which conclusively points to a common ancestor and evolution over millions of years. Or go and look at all the evidence of microbial evolution, since scientists have actually observed bacterial and fungal evolution as it happens and created new microbial species.
Once you've done that, go and apologise to your science teachers for being such a crap student. And never, EVER say "It's only a theory" again. A scientific theory is something that has been rigorously tested and fits with all of the current data, so is for all intents and purposes fact. A hypothesis is an idea that has not been tested yet. If I had my way, saying "It's only a theory" would be punishable by using the offender as a test subject to disprove the theory of gravity, by dropping them off a cliff.
There was no way in hell Einstein said any of that. He was born to a Jewish family, considered the idea of a human-like God to be absurd and naive, and was intelligent enough to know of the evidence behind evolution, that absolute zero is -273 Celsius (No scientist ever uses Fahrenheit), and to not try to make the ridiculous connection between subjective experience of cold or darkness and God. He explained his beliefs as "God is a mystery. But a comprehensible mystery. I have nothing but awe when I observe the laws of nature. There are not laws without a lawgiver, but how does this lawgiver look? Certainly not like a man magnified."
Isn't that usually how it is with these kinds of plans?
Well, yes, but in this case TS was more wrong that most, without using words like "homeopathy", "aura", "chakras" or "holistic", which is like a big flashing neon sign that says "Leave rational thought at the door" (when talking about biology at least, I'm aware that holistic is a legitimate term in quantum physics and private detective work). While he made the incredibly obvious mistake of comparing daily food intake with daily brain activity, there was still enough scientific-sounding crap that it merited a serious explanation of just how wrong he was.
I think your all forgetting the very basic principle of mono-nucleic hydrogen fixating on a pivot point where the chloroform subsides. Then, by Costanza's Law of Syncopation, we find that a virulent form of proprietary physics will inadvertently calm the acids so that they can be subsidized for future reference.
This of course proves my (already painfully obvious) point that the secondary solution will dissolve in nearly any form of pretentious fluids, but maple syrup always proves to be the most effective as long as step 7 is performed properly. All that's left is to take out the mitochondria and find it's base.
So you're claiming to talk about the science of sleep without a single mention of circadian rhythms. You know, only the most important concept in current understanding of sleep. I'll get onto that in a minute, once I've corrected the rest of your post.
While you are correct that sleep has multiple stages, there are in fact only 4. Stage 1 is the boundary between sleep and wakefulness, which lasts between 5 and 15 minutes. Stage 2, which lasts about 20 minutes, removes physical fatigue and increases alertness, but has no long-term effects and if trying to survive entirely on 20 minute naps and never passing beyond stage 2 of sleep, as this "uberman" suggests, it would damage long-term memory.
Stage 3, deep sleep (also known as slow-wave sleep), is the longest and one of the most important stages. During this time (60 minutes in the first cycle, and reducing with each subsequent cycle), neurons in the brain go through slow cycles of regular activation, lowering the strength of each synapse throughout the brain. Basically, as we are awake and forming new memories, strength of each memory forming synapse increases (I could get into a complex explanation of that but you don't need to know the details). However, this can't be allowed to increase indefinitely, it would kill the brain. So, during slow-wave sleep, in the absence of any input, the strength of synapses across the whole brain is slowly reduced, while keeping the relative differences between synapses intact, allowing memory to be preserved. If a person were to try to live entirely on 20 minute naps, as the "uberman" sleep plan suggests, they would never achieve slow-wave sleep and their long-term memory would be severely impaired.
Stage 4, or REM sleep, is where dreams occur, as you say. However, as my explanation of the previous stages suggests, it isn't the only phase that you 'profit' from. In REM sleep, memories are replayed (not necessarily in the order they were formed, otherwise dreams would make more sense), which, theoretically, aids with how the newly weakened synapses store long-term memory after stage 3. Less is known about how that works than stage 3. Theoretically, while stage 3 reduces the strength of the synapses across the board, REM sleep fires all of those synapses in an order determined by their strength, replaying the memory and allowing processes within the cells which fix that synaptic strength long-term to occur.
So there you, have it. With the exception of the first stage, which exists to transition from being awake into stage 2, all stages of sleep are absolutely necessary long-term.
Now, onto circadian rhythms. Basically, a large number of brain and body functions run on a 25 hour cycle, in the absence of any change in light. Neurons in what is known as the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN), which are sensitive to light, alter that cycle depending on the light and dark cycles of the day, changing the cycle to 24 hours. (In tests with rats, keeping them in a sealed room with a 10 hour cycle of light and darkness changes their bodies' cycles to 10 hours, and keeping them in a constant low light changes that cycle to 25 hours). As less natural light (characterised by a large amount of blue light, presumably because of how the atmosphere makes the sky blue) enters the eyes, the SCN increases the production of a compound called melatonin, which reduces activity of the conscious brain, reduces muscle activity, increases digestive activity, and when sleep has been achieved, regulates stages 3 and 4 of the cycle, among other things. While it's possible to achieve sleep at different times to the natural cycle of day and night, by regulating light and temperature in your room for example, your mind will always be less active between midnight and 2AM, approximately, so you will get less done at that time even if you have had smaller sleeps throughout the day that add up the the 8 hours people usually get. Additionally, this will cause digestive problems, as your body breaks down and absorbs more food during the night part of the cycle, as well as increasing the rate of cell growth at this time. By being awake and active, and possibly eating, when your body has high levels of melatonin in the night half of the cycle, you will disrupt all of these metabolic processes.
Some people suffer from what is known as delayed sleep-phase syndrome, which is where this cycle is delayed by a few hours, so these people fall asleep a few hours later than most and wake up a few hours later, and their highest and lowest brain activity occurs at later times. I myself suffer from this, and from TS's post I think he does too. There are a few possible treatments for this, the most common one being to force oneself to go to bed an hour later each day over the course of about 2 weeks, until a normal bed time is reached, which in some cases can reset the body's rhythm. However this is impractical for most people with jobs, as it means a week in which one goes to bed in the middle of the day. It also doesn't work for many people, or works for a short time but after a while the person returns to their original sleep cycle.
TL; DR: TS is wrong, doesn't understand the science, and is probably messing up his brain. Don't listen to him.
Interesting, I'd not heard about that before. Maybe they should have used the words "compound derived from cannabis" in the headline however, since the tests were with the isolated compound rather than the whole cannabis plant itself, to reduce the amount of people seeing the headline and deciding not to get proper treatment and to just smoke more weed instead.
I'm aware. Although, to be fair, most drugs are tested for a period of less than 2 years, same with dietary supplements (which is probably what hemp could be considered as). It does cost millions to do all of that, though.
That's just the human trials part. Before then any chemical has to be purified, its exact structure analysed, it needs to be tested for action on the specific target site in reconstituted receptors/cloned DNA/RNA/egg cells with injected DNA, then tested in cultured or extracted cells to ensure other cellular mechanisms don't prevent or alter its action at the target site, then tested in animals to ensure no harmful side effects or alteration of its effects by other processes within the animal. A delivery mechanism has to be designed (and I don't just mean injection or pill, I mean molecules to ensure it doesn't break down in the digestive system and/or blood, and to maximise the amount that reaches the correct part of the body, which also need to be tested), and then made into pill or solution form for clinical trials. Plus at some point down the line, depending on whether it has other uses or not, a method for mass producing it for a reasonable cost has to be figured out.
It's usually around 5 years or more before anything gets to human trials, then if the human trials are successful there's patenting it, which is quite a lot of time spent entirely on paperwork. Ten years from "Let's try this" to "I'm going to prescribe you this" is common, and fifteen years is more common than anyone would like.
Maybe you could start by seeing if there's adverse affects to it. At least, then you'd know that you weren't slowly poisoning yourself over a longtime period, if you were take a dose of hemp oil every day.
Thing is, there's a ton of testing that has to be done before anything can get to human trials. And for something to even be used for the first stage of testing there has to be some reasonable grounds to suspect that it would work, not just some potheads said so.
Was it you who trod on me plates of meat rushing down the apples and pears when I was about to go for a Geoff Hurst? If it was, you had it away on your toes before I could get a butcher's hook at your boat race to describe you to the old bill.
(I know some of that is non-rhyming slang but that's about all the cockney I know)