I will share with you the uses of the different types of guitar. I would also recommend you what to get for the different genres. But of course, I will highlight that the genre of a guitar should not stop you from getting that guitar.
It is very important to note that some musical styles do share guitar models. Just like the fender stratocaster, you can use it for both rock and blues. A gibson les paul is just as good as a strat in playing a wailing lead. However, it is important to know that making your own kind of music on the guitar of your choice is part of the fun and you should not really let the guitar musical style constrain you.
I will list some popular music styles and classic guitars that most people associate with those styles. This list is by no means exhaistive but does include recognised standard bearers on the respective genres:
Rock: fender stratocaster, gibson les paul and SG, ibanez RG and signature series, Paul Reed Smith, Tom Anderson
Heavy metal: Gibson explorer, flying v and SG, fender stratocaster, Ibanez iceman
R&B: Fender stratocaster, Gibson ES-335
Jazz: Gibson ES-175, Super 400 L-5, Epiphone Emperor Regent
New age, new acoustic: Taylore Grand Concert, Ovation Balladeer
Acoustic blues: National steel, Gibson J-200
Folk: Dreadnoughts and Grand Concerts By martin, taylor, collings, gibson J-200
Classical: Ramirez, Hopf, Khono, Humphrey
Electric blues: Fender telecaster, strat, gibson les paul, gibson es-355
Country: fender telecaster,strat, gretsch 6120
Bluegrass: Martin dreadnought, taylor dreadnought, Gallagher dreadnought
Although the list contains guitars that people normally associate with given styles, you should never let that limit your creativity. Play the music you want to play on the guitar you want to play on it! In other words, never mind what some chart tells you. So long as you like a particular guitar, do get it!
You can also check out this for more tips, advice and lessons about guitar.