Why Do My Scales Sound Boring. Part 2: Time Signatures

Practical application of time signatures.

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Ultimate Guitar
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This lesson really needs a video demonstration, but as the camera hates me, I'm going to try my best to describe it using text. I'd appreciate being told whether or not I succeeded. If it isn't clear, please ask questions. Part 1 of Why Do My Scales Sound Boring was about turning the guitar into a percussive instrument, and keeping ourselves amused with grooves alone. Using different time signatures can be very helpful. I'm going to try to explain how they work in terms of practicality. That is to say, how they affect the feel and flow of the music. So what does the time signature do to the music? What effect does it have on the feel and flow? In order to appreciate its effect, we first need to understand the two other elements that deal with time. These are tempo and note value. By knowing the tempo, which is stated at the beginning of a piece of music, we can determine for how long each type of note is to be held. If for example the tempo shows a quarter note = 60, then we know that quarter notes are held for roughly 1 second, straight eighth notes for half a second, triplet eighth notes for a third of a second, sixteenth notes for a quarter of a second, and so on. We do this instinctively by dividing up the beats evenly. Now that we know how long to hold each note, how does the time signature affect things? Other than telling us how many of each type of note fits into each bar, what does it actually do in practical terms? To answer this question I'm going to use a very unimaginative piece of music, and an analogous train wheel. And so you're going to have to do a bit of visualisation. Fingers crossed, here goes The tempo for this piece of music is eighth notes =200. The piece of music is a C major scale played through two octaves up and down with all notes played as eighth notes. Do not use a metronome for this exercise. The tempo isn't important. What is important, is that we're going to be playing exactly the same notes in exactly the same order at exactly the same tempo. The only thing we're going to change is the time signature. This is going to allow us to really appreciate what it does to the feel of the music. I'm going to ask you to do two things. The first is to play the piece, and the second is to imagine the wheels on one of those old steam trains. You know the type I mean? They have a horizontal bar that is pushed up and down by a steam driven piston. But the fact that its attached to the outer edge of a wheel means it can't go straight up and down. The wheel causes it to go left and right as well as up and down in just the right proportions to make a circle. Hope you're following this. Your forearm, from the elbow to your picking hand, is that horizontal bar. Your picking hand is the bit that is attached to the edge of the wheel. If you imagine you're using your picking hand to draw a circle around either your pickups or the sound hole of an acoustic, then your forearm should behave just like the horizontal bar on the wheel of the train. It's driving the wheel of the train in a forward motion. Despite the fact that we're constantly playing eighth notes at 200 bpm, Changing the time signature will change the speed of the train. Time signatures such as 5/8 and 7/8 will even cause the train to speed up and slow down during every bar. The first time signature is good old 4/4:
 4/4
|----------------|--------5-7-8-7-|5---------------|----------------|
|----------------|--5-6-8---------|--8-6-5---------|----------------|
|----------2-4-5-|7---------------|--------7-5-4-2-|----------------|
|----2-3-5-------|----------------|----------------|5-3-2-----------|
|3-5-------------|----------------|----------------|------5-3-------|
|----------------|----------------|----------------|----------------|
|1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - |1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - |1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - |1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - |
 >   >   >   >    >   >   >   >    >   >   >   >    >   >   >   >  
You can see from the accent marks (>) that all the weighted notes are on the beat. These should be played with down strokes. The off beats (-) should be played with up strokes. All pretty straight forward, but what does this do to the wheel of our train? Thee answer is, not much. If we make a circle (as described above) with our picking hand, the lowest point of the circle should coincide with the weightiest beats (>). The off beats (-) should coincide with the highest point of the circle. This means that in 4/4 we make a full circle for EVERY two eighth notes, and the train moves at a smooth and constant speed. Now let's contrast that with 7/8. Note there are several ways to play a bar of 7/8. I've chosen what I believe is the easiest.
 7/8
|--------------|----------5-7-|8-7-5---------|--------------|--
|--------------|----5-6-8-----|------8-6-5---|--------------|--
|----------2-4-|5-7-----------|------------7-|5-4-2---------|--
|----2-3-5-----|--------------|--------------|------5-3-2---|--
|3-5-----------|--------------|--------------|------------5-|3-
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|--
|1 - 2 - 3 - - |1 - 2 - 3 - - |1 - 2 - 3 - - |1 - 2 - 3 - - |1
 >   >   >      >   >   >      >   >   >      >   >   >      >
Remember that the eighth notes are still being played at exactly the same rate, and we're playing all the same notes. However it now has a very different feel because of the uneven distribution of weighted notes. Notice that there is one off beat between the 1 and the 2, and the 2 and the 3, but there are two off beats between the 3 and the 1 of the next bar. What does this do to the speed of the train? Something pretty interesting. If the picking hand is at the lowest point of the circle for the weighted beats, then you can see that it does a full circle for 1 - (two eighths), a full circle for 2 - (two eighths), and a full circle for 3 - - (three eighths). In other words, for 3 - - ,the off beats can't both be at the top of the circle, they're at 10 and 2 o'clock. This means that the last of the three circles takes a little longer, and so the train slows a little for that section of the bar. It's this that gives time signatures such as 7/8 and 5/8 their out-of-step feel. 7/8 feels like: skip skip step, skip skip step etc. But as mentioned above, it can be played: step skip skip, or skip step skip. The step' being the bit with three eighths that takes a little longer. Something else worth mentioning is the pick pattern (down up) for 7/8. If there has to be a down stroke on every weighted note this means that for the example above (skip skip step), the pick pattern must be:
|1 - 2 - 3 - - |1 - 2 - 3 - - |1 - 2 - 3 - - |1 - 2 - 3 - - |1
 d u d u d u d  d u d u d u d  d u d u d u d  d u d u d u d  d
So you can see there are two downs in a row, which end and begin the next bar. This double downing' is a very useful skill to develop when dealing with time signatures such as 3/8, 5/8, 6/8, 7/8 etc. Now let's compare 6/8 and 3/4. The interesting thing here is that the fact that we're playing everything using just eighth notes, means that played using all eighth notes, contains exactly the same number as 6/8. The fact that we're playing six eighth notes per bar at exactly the same tempo for both time signatures, really helps to emphasise what a time signature does to the feel (the train).
 3/4
|------------|------------|5-7-8-7-5---|------------|------------|
|------------|------5-6-8-|----------8-|6-5---------|------------|
|----------2-|4-5-7-------|------------|----7-5-4-2-|------------|
|----2-3-5---|------------|------------|------------|5-3-2-------|
|3-5---------|------------|------------|------------|------5-3---|
|------------|------------|------------|------------|------------|
 1 - 2 - 3 - |1 - 2 - 3 - |1 - 2 - 3 - |1 - 2 - 3 - |1 - 2 - 3 - |
 >   >   >    >   >   >    >   >   >    >   >   >    >   >   >
Despite the fact that 3/4 has an odd number on top, the train is still going to move along in an even way because each full circle contains two eighths with the weighted notes at the bottom (6 o'clock) and the off beats at the top (12 oclock).
 6/8
|------------|------------|5-7-8-7-5---|------------|------------|
|------------|------5-6-8-|----------8-|6-5---------|------------|
|----------2-|4-5-7-------|------------|----7-5-4-2-|------------|
|----2-3-5---|------------|------------|------------|5-3-2-------|
|3-5---------|------------|------------|------------|------5-3---|
|------------|------------|------------|------------|------------|
 1 - - 2 - - |1 - - 2 - - |1 - - 2 - - |1 - - 2 - - |1 - - 2 - - |
 >     >      >     >      >     >      >     >      >     >     
In 3/4, the circle contained two eighths (one at the bottom and one at the top), 6/8 has three eighths per circle with the weight at the bottom, and the off beats at 10 and 2. This means that in 6/8 each circle takes longer, and so even though the eighth notes have the same rapidity for both time signatures, 6/8 will have a slower feel because the train is moving slower. Okay, let's talk about 9/8. And let's talk about how, in its most common form, it is very different from signatures such as 5/8 and 7/8. All three have 8 on the bottom and an odd number on the top, so why does 9/8 differ from the other two?
 9/8
|------------------|------5-7-8-7-5---|------------------|----
|------------------|5-6-8-----------8-|6-5---------------|----
|----------2-4-5-7-|------------------|----7-5-4-2-------|----
|----2-3-5---------|------------------|------------5-3-2-|----
|3-5---------------|------------------|------------------|5-3-
|------------------|------------------|------------------|----
 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - |1 - - 2 - - 3 - - |1 - - 2 - - 3 - - |1 -  
 >     >     >      >     >     >      >     >     >      >
In 7/8 we saw that the bar broke down into three circles. The first two contained two eighths, and the third contained three. This gave it a skip skip step feel. 9/8 however is made up of all steps'. The result is that 9/8 has an even feel. The train moves at a constant speed because each circle has the same duration. Unlike 5 and 7, 9 isn't a prime number. This means 9 can be divided into three equal parts. Time signatures that are based on eighth notes, group the eighths into clusters. The weight is never placed on all the eighth notes, just the opening note of the cluster. Because 5 and 7 are prime numbers, they can't be divided equally, and so the groups of eighth notes will be unequal. This is why mathematicians love primes and musicians love prime times, because we're weirdoes who are out-of-step.
5/8
1 - 2 - - |1 - 2 - - | etc
>   >       >  >
 
Or
 
1 - - 2 - |1 - - 2 - | etc  
>     >    >     >
5/8 either has a skip step feel or a step skip feel. The train goes quick slow quick slow or slow quick slow quick. And that's pretty much it for my article on time signatures. But what about 5/4, 6/4, 7/4 etc. Just glue 3/4 and 2/4 together, or 4/4 and 2/4, or 4/4 and 3/4 etc. Is that wrong? Because that's what I do! Here's a question for the musos out there. While pondering time signatures, I came up with a question that I couldn't answer. Can you? In spite of the fact that music such as Latin, Reggae, Ska etc deliberately place emphasis on the off beat - sometimes emphasising the off beats either side of the 1, and leaving a silence where the 1 is, we still can find the beat, and we still can find the 1. This is true even when we join the music halfway through. And the 1 always has the greatest weight - even when its silent. Why?

11 comments sorted by best / new / date

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    shadowmaster036
    I think you did a good job there. But for this you really need to have a grasp for time signatures first. If you don't then someone with no previous knowledge base might have a hard time without a video or audio file to really get the feel.
    Pudel
    Nice article, but it feels a bit out of subject. The title one and the first look like a block of improvisation tips, while this one is definitely designed for songwriters. Great work, though!
    Toms' anominous
    Good job on the article, I think your a hero at trying to get a very important and often overlooked point across. I spend most of my time composing, thinking about the melody and interesting changes and that sort of thing, and not until playing a lot more acoustic stuff and drums that I realised how important groove was. Even something simple like playing a note hard instead of soft can give a very different feel to what your trying to play. So I personally believe that the best way to combat this was to pretend that my guitar is the lead singer. Singers often sing one or two notes and change the words and in most modern music that is where the melody come from. But in answer to your question, I don't think it's true that people can always pick out the 1. It is my experience that a lot of people can't tell, and many others have no clue what the 1 or off beat or anything like that even is! I think that for the musical amongst us, its a different part of our brain that deals with music, as opposed to the non-musical. We just seem to know how its supposed to fit together and probably bottles down to experience. Like being able to just predict the musical key from just the first two chords of a song. Or for how many bars a certain musical idea will last. I've noticed this when I jam with musicians that i've never jammed with before. You can always seem to predict whats going on.
    Pudel
    @Tom: YOu're right! It comes instinctively and involuntarily for us while when we talk to some people that aren't really in the subject, we find it particularly hard to explain. Tell me, how you find out keys and rythms? But, the funniest thing is, that not only we can't explain how we find 'em, but also we find it hard to explain the dire concept of key or time signature! (I still can't deal with that problem in a way other than showing practical uses, until I get my 'student' to the point)
    Haanz
    chris flatley wrote: if titles are hugely important, then this has been a masterclass in how not to do it. The title asks a question rather than promises answers. It picks a boring topic, scales, and asks why is it boring. It's just wrong on every level. And a couple of good solid ideas have gone begging as a result. A great salesman would have called it 'How to make your guitar playing sound amazing'. but I'm not sure I want to become the thing I hate most... so hey ho.
    Actually, the title was the only reason I didn't just ignore the article like I do so many UG lessons. It's a common problem with beginners like myself but it's probably one of the biggest hurdles in creating your own music, and a title like "Why do my scales sound boring?" worked for me because it's a question I've genuinely asked myself before. Keep up the good work.
    Mythros
    As an answer to your question: I believe that we can always find the strong beat naturally even during syncopation because musical ideas, especially the accented strong beat at the start of a bar are drilled into us from kindergarten, when the teachers make you sing nursery rhymes. Ask any non-musical person on the street what the major scale sounds like and chances are they don't know what you're going on about. However, play it for them on a keyboard and most likely they will recognise it straight away. Most mainstream music that people listen to on the radio today is in 4/4 time, and so we have this 1-2-3-4 drilled into us all of our lives. I spoke to an older woman once who is a music teacher and she told me that people in her generation and the one before it have 3/4 drilled into them because all of the popular music when they were growing up was in 3/4 time. So I think it is just a matter of what we are familiar with. We are so used to hearing the strong first beat in modern music that our minds fill it in for us.
    shreddymcshred
    Next time you write this, perhaps drop the train metaphor and use technical language. It takes as much (or more) time to explain the metaphor as you could do it in technical terms.
    Gman400
    The train metaphor confused the balls out of me. I didn't get the point of it and it just confused me and made me stop reading. Whether the fault is due more to my laziness or the bad metaphor, who knows? But I'm sure I'm not the only one who stopped reading because of the confusing locomotive diatribe.
    Vampire96
    understanding some ideas on a few things really did not made it well enough, but reading tru the tabs. i somehow fill the picture enough to comment that i still need an audio for this.