In the key of a-minor this would be:
Generally I don't like numbering scales this way because you lose the sense of where the tone center is. But, if we used the same numbers we used for the major scale we'd have no way of distinguishing between the two. Another way of looking at a minor scale is a major scale with the 3rd, 6th, and 7th all lowered by a half-step, or one fret. So we could write it this way:
Off of any open string, you can play this scale using the following frets:
This is great for writing, but what about ear training? If you've read my other articles on the subject you know that I have you sing the scale degrees in order to develop your relative pitch. Singing "flat-three" takes too long and doesn't distinguish itself well from singing "three." I've developed a system where I've lengthened the vowels of each note that's been lowered. So instead of "three" sing "thray." "Saix" instead of "six" and "saiven" instead of "seven." So to sing the minor scale you would use these sounds: One, two, thray, four, five, saix, saiven, eight Any of the exercises you've done with major scales for building chops and developing your ear will work equally well with the minor scale. Now here's where the fun begins. In music you always need a sense of tonality - where is home base. In the major scale the seventh degree creates a good deal of tension, and just begs to resolve to the 1. The b7 doesn't have the same pull, but we can create the same effect by raising the seventh degree by a half step. The scale now looks like this:
This scale is called the harmonic minor scale. If you play it you'll hear an exotic sound, especially between the b6 and the 7. And you get the nice resolution back to your tone center. Sometimes that sound is too weird for what you're going for, so you can also raise the sixth degree by a half step.
This one is called the melodic minor scale. Personally I find it kind of boring because once you're past the b3 it just sounds like a major scale. To play a harmonic minor scale start on any string and play off the following frets:
For the melodic minor scale play it this way:
For years and years I thought of these scales as three separate entities. Sometimes I would practice a natural minor, sometimes a melodic minor, sometimes a harmonic - but I never really got anywhere. It wasn't until I spent some time playing J.S. Bach pieces that I realized that these three scales were just variations on the same theme. When Bach would write a piece in G minor, he didn't set the whole thing in natural minor, or melodic, or harmonic, he would weave between the three depending on where he wanted the music to go - often creating amazing results. So let's build some chords and see what happens. Just like the major key the three primary chords are built off of the 1 the 4 and the 5. In the natural minor these three triads are as follow:
You'll notice that each of these chords makes a minor triad. But what if we use the harmonic or melodic minor scales? The harmonic minor raises the b7 to a 7, making the V chord major. The melodic minor raises both the b6 and the b7 which means both the IV and the V chords become major. This means when you're composing, soloing, etc, you can use either a major or minor chord for the IV or the V. Each of them will resolve to the minor I chord, or as its sometimes notated: I. Kirk Hammett used this trick during his epic "Enter Sandman" guitar solo. The song is in e minor, yet on two occasions he used an A major arpeggio resolving to a screaming high E. I've simplified the example quite a bit but it illustrates the concept nicely.
i: 1-b3-5 iv: 4-b6-8 v: 5-b7-2