Part IV - Chapter 3
"Chords - Modal Chord Progressions"
Hello all, and welcome to the last of all theory chapters in the Ultimate Guide to Guitar! After we covered a gigantic heap of theory last week, I'm sorry to inform you that this week's article isn't going to be any shorter or easier... Chords is our subject this week. We learned a lot about chord progressions already in previous theory chapters, but we haven't touched on 2 important subjects ... Those subjects are: how to make a chord progression in a modal setting, and how to change the tonal centre or key of a chord progression to another, or "modulate" the progression. Those 2 subjects are what we're going to discuss in this chapter and the next respectively!
Last week, you already came into contact with the concept of modal chord progressions. You should already know that modal chord progressions are different from "regular" (tonal) progressions, in that the chords in the progressions possess extensions that accentuate the modal notes of the played mode, thereby declaring the whole progression to be set in that mode. We're going to look into this again, by first learning how to harmonize the seven diatonic modes, and then how to construct proper modal progressions from these harmonized modes. After this lesson you should be able to write your own modal vamps to play over!
So, here's what we're going to cover in this chapter:
1. Harmonizing modes: how to harmonize the seven diatonic modes!
2. Modal progressions: how to construct progressions in each mode, using the chords from the harmonized mode!
Let's go, on to the final pieces of theory in the Ultimate Guide to Guitar!
Last week, we studied modal melodies played over short modal progressions to get to know the sound of each of the modes. How these modal progressions or "vamps" were formed, though, we did not discuss, since we focused on the melody only. However, in the following sections we'll be looking into the construction of those modal vamps in more detail!
Like in tonal (Major and Minor) progressions, the chords that can be used in a modal progression come from the harmonization of the notes in the mode in question. So, if we want to know what chords are available to us to create modal progressions with in each mode, we should start off by harmonizing each mode first! This is only half of the work if we want to create a modal progressions, though, but very important nonetheless. So, let's start off by harmonizing the seven diatonic modes... You'll find it to be pretty easy!
A. The Ionian Mode
We'll start off by harmonizing the Ionian mode, the first of the seven diatonic modes. How do we go about doing this? Well, we learned how to harmonize the Major scale (without extensions) in Chapter II-3, so if you don't remember how to do it, I suggest you check out that lesson again. Luckily for us, the Major scale and the Ionian mode consist of identical intervals, so the harmonized Major scale will be the same as the harmonized Ionian mode! So, which chords are found in the harmonized Ionian mode?
Hopefully, you remember how this Roman numeral system for naming chords works. A short recap: the above scheme shows the 7 chords belonging to the harmonized Ionian mode, numbered from the root (I) upwards. The chords that are indicated with uppercase letters are Major chords, and those indicated with lowercase letters are Minor, except the one with a -mark over it; this indicates a Diminished chord. The intervals between the chords are of course given by the intervals between the notes in the mode.
Got that? If you did, we can move on to the harmonization of the next mode!
B. The Dorian Mode
Harmonizing the Dorian mode works in the exact same way as harmonizing the Major scale, or the Ionian mode... But we don't even need to harmonize each note in the Dorian mode manually, to find the Dorian harmonized mode! There's a much easier way to find it: we can simply deduce it from the harmonized diatonic Major scale!
How does this work? Well, we learned in Chapter IV-1 that we can view each mode as a derivation of the diatonic Major scale, as the result from a shift in tonal centre. The Dorian mode, as we know, is derived from the diatonic scale by shifting the tonal centre to the second note; well, similarly, we can derive the harmonized Dorian mode by shifting the root chord in the harmonized diatonic Major scale to the second chord! This will be the result:
I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii
Finding this scheme was very easy: we simply took the harmonized Major scale and shifted the tonal centre to the second chord. So, we changed the "ii" to "i", the "iii" to "ii", the "IV" to "III", and so on... Easy enough! Remember, though, that by shifting the tonal centre, the intervals between the chords changed as well, as we learned in Chapter IV-1... So, we mustn't forget to indicate the characteristic flat 3rd and 7th intervals of the Dorian mode!
And voil, we have our harmonized Dorian mode! Pretty easy, huh? Now, we're going to do the same for all the other modes as well!
C. The Phrygian Mode
Constructing the harmonized Phrygian mode is just as easy as finding the harmonized Dorian mode... We will do exactly the same: we take the harmonized diatonic scale, we shift the tonal centre from the first to the third chord, assign new numerals, and we're done! Here's the result from the shift in root chord:
i - ii - bIII - IV - v - vi - bVII
Compare this harmonized scale to the harmonized diatonic scale (or Ionian mode). You can see how this one has been derived from the harmonized diatonic scale: we used the "iii" as root chord and renumbered it to "i", we renumbered the "IV" to "II", the "V" to "III", and so on... Note that the flat 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th intervals that distinguish the Phrygian mode from the diatonic Major scale must be indicated as well. And there we go, another mode has been harmonized, on to the next!
D. The Lydian Mode
You know the drill! We take the harmonized diatonic scale and shift the tonal centre to the fourth chord, and we have our harmonized Lydian mode! Easy enough... here is the harmonized Lydian mode, resulting from the shift in tonal centre:
i - bII - bIII - iv - v - bVI - bvii
By now, you should know how this scheme is formed: we take the "IV" chord from the harmonized diatonic scale and renumber it to "I", then we renumber the "V" to "II", the "vii" to "iii", and so on... Next, we indicate the raised 4th interval that is distinctive to the Lydian mode, and we're done! We're getting the hang of it!
E. The Mixolydian Mode
Once more, we take the harmonized diatonic scale, and shift the tonal centre to the fifth chord. The result is the harmonized Mixolydian scale, which looks like this:
I - II - iii - #iv - V - vi - vii
As you know by now, the above scheme is the result from a shift in tonal centre followed by a renumbering: we changed "V" to "I", "vi" to "ii", and so on. Not forgetting to indicate the flat 7th interval, we now have our harmonized Mixolydian mode!
F. The Aeolian Mode
Since the Aeolian mode shares its intervals with the diatonic Minor scale, the harmonized Aeolian mode will look exactly the same as the harmonized Minor scale we studied in Chapter II-3... Let's have a look and compare:
I - ii - iii - IV - v - vi - bVII
We take the "vi" chord from the harmonized diatonic scale as our root chord, and rename it to "i", and proceed to rename the other chords: "vii" to "ii", I to III, and so on... Then, we indicate the flat 3rd, 6th and 7th intervals that distinguish the Aeolian mode from the diatonic Major scale, and we have our harmonized Aeolian mode, which is indeed exactly the same as the harmonized Minor scale we learned about before!
G. The Locrian Mode
That leaves us with only one mode left to harmonize, which is the Locrian mode. Of course, we know what to do by now: we take the harmonized Major scale and shift the tonal centre around to the seventh chord! This is the result:
i - ii - bIII - iv - v - bVI - bVII
Surprisingly, all we need to do to construct this scheme is do the exact same thing we did for the other 6 modes... We start by shifting the root to the "vii" chord, renumbering it to "i" in the process; then, we renumber the other chords; and finally, we indicate the flat 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th and 7th intervals that are distinctive to the Locrian mode.
And we're done! We succesfully harmonized each of the 7 diatonic modes, simply by deducing each harmonized mode from the harmonized diatonic Major scale! Here's a quick overview of the 7 harmonized diatonic modes, as a brief summary of this paragraph:
i - bII - biii - iv - bV - bVI - bvii
Harmonizing the seven modes was an easy enough task! However, creating modal progressions is more difficult than that, we can't just go and combine random chords plucked out of the harmonized mode and call it a modal progression in said mode... How does it work then? The next section will provide the answer!
Ionian: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii
Dorian: i - ii - bIII - IV - v - vi - bVII
Phrygian: i - bII - bIII - iv - v - bVI - bvii
Lydian: I - II - iii - #iv - V - vi - vii
Mixolydian: I - ii - iii - IV - v - vi - bVII
Aeolian: i - ii - bIII - iv - v - bVI - bVII
Locrian: i - bII - biii - iv - bV - bVI - bvii
Like I said, modal progressions are not merely random combinations of chords taken from a harmonized mode and put together in a random order. First of all, we need to consider that not all chords can be taken from a harmonized mode and combined to form a "modal sounding" progression, while other chords from the same harmonized scale create a perfect modal sound in said mode. Secondly, chord extensions are added to most of these chords in order to create an even more pronounced modal setting. So, there are still a number of questions that need to be solved:
What chords from the harmonized scale can we combine to form a "modal" sounding progression in each mode?
What extensions should each chord possess in order to make the entire progression "declare" the mode it's in?
If we can answer these questions, we know how to create modal progressions in each of the seven modes. So, we're going to look into each of the seven modes individually again, trying to answer the above 2 questions! As an illustration, we're going to look into the construction of progression in the modes of the E Major scale. Let's have a look at the first of the diatonic modes, and how we can create modal progressions in that mode, using the chords from its harmonized form.
A. The Ionian Mode
We harmonized the Ionian mode in the above section already, so we know the 7 chords that are available for us to build chord progressions with. But what chords can we choose and combine from this harmonized scale, and why? And what extensions should we use with each chord?
Well, both these things are determined by the characteristic modal notes of the mode we're playing in. Like I said, a progression needs to declare the mode it's in clearly; well, the best way to do this is to use chords built from the modal notes that are distinctive to said mode! Got that?
To illustrate how this works, we're going to look at the mode of E Ionian. First, let's look at the harmonized E Ionian mode:
The above set of chords is easily found by just filling the notes in the E Ionian mode into the scheme of the harmonized Ionian mode we constructed in the previous paragraph. Now, which of these chords can be used in an E Ionian modal vamp, and which extensions need to be added? Like I said, that depends on the modal notes that are characteristic to the Ionian mode. In E Ionian, the following modal notes are important:
The root: Of course, the root note that we're using (E) needs to be explicitly established as our root note, and there's no better way to do that than to use the root chord (E Major chord) as the basis of our chord progression! Furthermore, the Major triad that is present in the root chord declares the mode we're in to be Major, because of the expression of the major 3rd and perfect 5th intervals (G# and B). And thirdly, a major 7th extension can be used with this chord to declare the major 7th interval (D#), which is distinctive to the E Ionian mode! Because of these 3 reasons, the root chord with major 7th extension (EMaj7) is the single most important chord in E Ionian modal vamps!
The perfect 4th: This interval (A) is characteristic to the E Ionian mode, so using the chord from the harmonized mode that is based around this interval (A Major chord) is a good way to make your progression "sound Ionian". With a major 7th extension, this chord also expresses the Ionian mode's major 3rd interval (a major 7th interval up from A is G#, which is the major 3rd up from the root). So, the 4th chord with major 7th extension (AMaj7) should be a great chord to declare the Ionian mode in an E Ionian progression!
The perfect 5th: Another very usable chord in Ionian progressions, since it's built from and therefore naturally declares the perfect 5th (B) and major 7th (D#). Furthermore, with a minor 7th extension, the Ionian mode's distinctive perfect 4th interval is expressed (a minor 7th interval up from B is A, which is a perfect 4th up from the root). So, the 5th chord with minor 7th extension (B7) is another great chord to fit into a Ionian vamp!
So, the chords in the harmonized Ionian mode that are most suitable to create Ionian progressions with, are the EMaj7, AMaj7 and B7 chords. Do those chords look familiar? Indeed, the E Ionian progression I showed you last week consisted of the EMaj7 and AMaj7 chords! We must be doing something right then...
In general, this means we could use the chords IMaj7, IVMaj7 and V7 in our progressions. Why not the chords built on the major 3rd or major 7th, though, you may ask? Well, even though both these notes are distinctive Ionian intervals, the chords built on these notes are a Minor and a Diminished chord respectively... And since the Ionian mode is a Major mode, it sounds better to accentuate this Major quality using Major chords! That doesn't mean the iii or vii chords, or any of the remaining chords in the harmonized scale for that matter, can't be used in Ionian progressions at all, though! Just make sure the progression keeps sounding Ionian, by resolving to the root chord after every few beats.
B. The Dorian Mode
Right, now that we know how to find out what chords can be used in Ionian modal progressions, we can can do the same with all of the other modes to find the right chords to build modal progressions with... Let's get going with the Dorian mode, the second of the seven modes! We'll use the same example in E as an illustration: below is the harmonized E Dorian mode.
E - F#m - G#m - A - B - C#m - D#dim
Now, which of the above chords can be used in E Dorian progressions, as well as which extensions should be added to those chords, is determined by the Dorian modal notes. The important modal intervals in E Dorian are:
The root: Obviously, the root chord (E Minor chord) will be the most important chord in every Dorian progression. It declares the chosen root (E), as well as the minor 3rd and perfect 5th intervals (G and B) forming the Minor triad that the Dorian mode is based upon. With a major 6th extension, this chord will also declare the major 6th interval (C#) that distinguishes the Dorian mode from the other Minor modes... So, the root chord with major 6th extension (Emadd6 or Em6) is the most important chord in E Dorian vamps!
The natural 2nd: Not only does the natural 2nd interval distinguish the Dorian mode from the Phrygian mode (both are Minor modes), the chord built on the natural 2nd (F# Minor chord) expresses the major 6th (C#) and is therefore a good chord to declare the Dorian mode in progressions with. A minor 7th extension can be added to declare the root note again (a minor 7th interval up from F# is E, our root note)... This makes the 2nd chord with minor 7th extension (F#m7) great for Dorian progressions.
The perfect 4th: This is not exactly an interval that is distinctive to the Dorian mode, but the chord built around it (A Major chord) is used often in Dorian vamps because it expresses the major 6th (C#). Furthermore, it can express the minor 3rd interval (G), and therefore the Ionian mode's Minor quality, with a minor 7th extension (a minor 7th interval up from A is G, which is the minor 3rd up from the root). Because of this, the 4th chord with minor 7th extension (A7) works perfectly in Dorian vamps!
So, in E Dorian, the chords that declare the Dorian mode the best in a chord progression are Em6, F#m7 and A7... these look familiar again, don't they? Yes indeed, last week's Dorian vamp was constructed from the Em6 and A7 chords!
In general, Dorian chord progressions often possess the i6, ii7 and IV7 chords, since these are great chords to declare the Dorian character of the progression. Remember that you can also use any of the other chords in the harmonized Dorian mode; the chords listed above are usually the most prominent chords in Dorian progressions though.
Notice that the chord built around the Dorian mode's most distinctive interval, the major 6th (C# in E Dorian), isn't used... Why not? Well, this chord is a Diminished chord, which will not create a good "Dorian sound" when used in a Dorian chord progression, since Diminished chords sound so unstable. Dorian vamps rely on the chords listed above to declare the major 6th, rather than on the vi chord itself...
C. The Phrygian Mode
On to the next mode, the Phrygian mode! Again, we'll use the E Phrygian mode as our example... Let's look at the chords in the harmonized E Phrygian mode:
Em - F#m - G - A - Bm - C#dim - D
Just like we did before, we now want to know which of these chords can be used in Phrygian modal progressions, and which extensions we need to add in order to create our Phrygian modal setting. Both these things are, as we know, determined by the characteristic Phrygian modal notes:
The root: Like in every modal progression, the root (E) needs to be declared... And of course, using the root chord (E Minor chord) as the basis of our progression is the best way to do this! With the Minor triad formed by the minor 3rd and perfect 5th interval (G and B), this chord clearly establishes the Minor quality of the Phrygian mode... Also, a minor 7th extension can be used, so that this chord also declares the E Phrygian mode's minor 7th interval (D). It's also possible to add a flat 9th interval, to express the Phrygian mode's characteristic flat 2nd interval (a flat 9th is a flat 2nd raised by an octave); but this extension makes the chord sound very unstable, so we'll rely on other chords in the progression to express the flat 2nd interval. The 2nd chord with (possible) minor 7th extension (Em7) is therefore the best chord to provide a Phrygian modal setting in E.
The flat 2nd: Like I said, we need to express the characteristic flat 2nd interval (F) that defines the E Phrygian mode... And conveniently, it's very possible to use the chord built on that interval (F Major chord) in our Phrygian progressions! Not only does this chord express the flat 2nd, it can also confirm the root (E) with a major 7th extension (a major 7th up from F is E, which is the root). This makes the 2nd chord with major 7th extension (FMaj7) ideal for our E Phrygian progression!
And there we go! The most important chords in E Phrygian chord progressions are Em and FMaj7. Remember those from last week's Phrygian vamp? The other chords from the harmonized Phrygian mode can be used as well, though, but these two chords will always be the most prominent ones in Phrygian progressions. From our example, we can deduce that in general, the i and bIIMaj7 chords are the most important chords in Phrygian modal vamps.
D. The Lydian Mode
The Lydian mode is next in line... We'll look at the E Lydian mode as our example again, and examine how constructing an E Lydian modal progression works. We'll start off by looking at the E Lydian harmonized mode:
Em - F - G - Am - Bdim - C - Dm
So, we now have our set of 7 chords, and we want to know which of these chords fit in a Lydian progression... Let's take a look at the Lydian mode's characteristic modal intervals:
The root: This one is obvious. The root chord (E Major chord) expresses our root (E), and possesses a major 3rd and perfect 5th (G# and B) to declare the Lydian mode's Major character. Since the major 7th interval (D#) is one of the Lydian mode's characteristic intervals, it can be expressed in the root chord as an extension. So, a good chord to base an E Lydian vamp on would be the root chord with major 7th extension (EMaj7)!
The natural 2nd: Although this isn't a very characteristic Lydian interval, the chord based on the natural 2nd (F# Major chord) expresses the raised 4th interval (A#) that sets the Lydian mode apart from all the other modes! Furthermore, with a minor 7th extension, this chord can express the root of the progression (a minor 7th up from F# is E, which is the root). That makes the 2nd chord with minor 7th extension (F#7) a great chord for our E Lydian progression!
The perfect 5th: The chord built on the Lydian mode's perfect 5th (B) is one great chord to use in a Lydian modal vamp! Why is that? Because it possesses the two intervals that set the Lydian mode apart from the other 2 Major modes: first of all, the major 7th (D#), and second of all, the raised 4th (A#), if we add it as a major 7th extension (a major 7th up from B is A#, which is a raised 4th up from the root). Because of this, the 5th chord with major 7th extension (BMaj7) is a great chord to use in our E Lydian vamp!
In our E Lydian vamp, the following chords are the most prominent and useful chords: EMaj7, F#7 and BMaj7. In general, that translates to the IMaj7, II7 and VMaj7 being the chords that are suited best for Lydian vamps. Notice that the chord built on the characteristic raised 4th interval of the Lydian mode isn't one of them; this is because this chord is a Diminished chord, and as stated before we tend to avoid these chords in our modal progressions. Keep in mind that, even though the listed chords are the most suitable and therefore the most common chords in modal vamps, the other chords in the harmonized Lydian mode can be used as well.
E. The Mixolydian Mode
And on we go, to the next mode: the Mixolydian mode. In E Mixolydian, the following set of chords results from the harmonization of the E Mixolydian mode:
E - F# - G#m - A#dim - B - C#m - D#m
The chords that we can choose from the above set to build a Mixolydian progression with, are determined by the Mixolydian modal notes... As if we didn't know that already by now! Let's look at the chords that can be used in an E Mixolydian progression:
The root: As in every other modal progression, the root chord is the most important chord of all. The root chord in E Mixolydian (E Major chord) expresses the Major quality of the Mixolydian mode, through the major 3rd and perfect 5th (G# and B). With a minor 7th extension, it can also express the distinctive minor 7th that clearly declares the Mixolydian mode... this makes the root chord with minor 7th extension (E7) a perfect choice for our E Mixolydian vamp!
The minor 7th: We want to express the characteristic Mixolydian minor 7th interval in our progression, and what other chord than the minor 7th chord (D Major chord)itself, being built on the minor 7th interval(D)? Even without extensions, the 7th chord is a good option for our E Mixolydian vamp.
There we go, we worked out that there are two prominent chords that we can use in an E Mixolydian vamp: E7 and D. Now, if we look at last week's Mixolydian vamp that I provided, you will see that I used a different chord than the 2 chords listed: an AMaj7 chord, the chord based off the perfect 4th of the Mixolydian mode! This illustrates that modal vamps can work even without each chord explicitly declaring all the important modal notes; as long as you keep the whole piece, i.e. melody and progression together, sound sufficiently "modal", you'll be fine!
We deduce from the above example that in general, the usable chords in Mixolydian progressions are I7 and bVII. Remember that, as I illustrated above, not only these chords are suitable for Mixolydian progressions, though they are the best options to retain the optimal Mixolydian sound to your progression!
F. The Aeolian Mode
With only 2 modes left to assess, we're nearly there! On to the second to last mode, the Aeolian mode! This mode is constructed from the same intervals as the Minor scale as you know it, but since modal music and tonal music are not the same, constructing Aeolian progressions is vastly different from constructing Minor progressions. Let's take a look at the harmonized E Aeolian mode as an example:
E - F#m - G#dim - A - Bm - C#m - D
Now, the construction of Aeolian progressions differs from the construction of Minor progressions in that it's bound to the same rules as the construction of progressions in the other modes. We know we have to accentuate the characteristic modal notes of this mode; so, let's find out how to do that in E Aeolian!
The root: Of course, using the root chord (E Minor chord) to express our root note, as well as the Minor character of this mode caused by the minor 3rd and perfect 5th intervals (G and B), is vital to creating an Aeolian vamp. This makes the root chord (Em), with or without extensions, a good place to start!
The perfect 4th: The chord built on the perfect 4th (A) of the Aeolian mode (A Minor chord) contains the mode's minor 6th (C), which needs to be accentuated in order to differentiate the played mode from the Dorian mode, which is also a Minor mode, but with a major 6th interval (C#)! A major 6th extension can be used to declare the Aeolian mode's natural 2nd (a major 6th up from A is F#, which is a natural 2nd up from the root); using this extension isn't necessary, but it can help establish the mode you're in as Aeolian, as opposed to Phrygian which is a Minor mode with a flat 2nd. So, the 4th chord with major 6th extension (Am6) chord is great for our E Aeolian progression!
The perfect 5th: There's not much to say about this chord, except that it works great in Aeolian progressions since it naturally contains the Aeolian mode's natural 2nd (F#), so using the 5th chord (Bm) (without extensions even) is a good way to make our progression sound Aeolian!
We now know that the Em, Am6 and Bm chords are good chords for us to build an Aeolian progression with... There are other options, though, as you can see by the Aeolian progression I provided last week: it contains a GMaj7 chord, expressing the natural 2nd (F#) just like the Am6 chord. So, in general, the most prominent chords in Aeolian progressions are the i, iv(6) and v chords, but keep in mind that these chords are never your only options!
G. The Locrian Mode
All right, only one more mode to go: the Locrian mode! This one has always been a bit of an outsider, and regarding the construction of its modal progressions, this is no different... Let's take a look at the harmonized E Locrian mode first, so you can see what I'm talking about:
Em - F#dim - G - Am - Bm - C - D
Notice that, since the Locrian mode is a Diminished mode, the root chord of the harmonized Locrian mode is a Diminished chord. This will affect the way we construct Locrian modal vamps: we'll want to emphasize the Diminished character of the Locrian mode, and the only way to do that is to use the root chord (Edim), and only the root chord! We can add a minor 7th extension to the chord to express the minor 7th (D), but that's about it: the only chord we can use in our Locrian vamp is the root chord with minor 7th extension (Edim7 or Em7b5)! This holds true in general: the i chord is the only truly valid chord in Locrian progressions!
Now, what about the Locrian vamp I showed you last week? Didn't that one consist of more than just the root chord? Yes, and no. The Gm6 chord that I used in that progression consisted of the exact same notes as the Em7b5 chord, but it used a different note as the bass note. This is called an inversion, and the inverted chord received a different name... but basically, the chords consist of the same notes, so they're pretty much identical!
And there we go, we succesfully covered the construction of modal progressions in each of the seven diatonic modes! To make it easier for you to remember this massive chunk of theory, here's a quick recap of the most used chords in modal vamps in each mode:
Edim - F - Gm - Am - Bb - C - Dm
Once more, I'll remind you that the chords listed above aren't the only chords that should ever be used in a modal progression in the listed mode... the other chords from each harmonized mode can be used as well, as I demonstrated a couple of times by showing you that the modal progressions I provided last week were "off" sometimes, but still valid modal vamps!
Ionian: IMaj7 - IVMaj7 - V7
Dorian: i6 - ii7 - IV7
Phrygian: i - bIIMaj7
Lydian: I - II7 - VMaj7
Mixolydian: I7 - bVII
Aeolian: i - iv(6) - v
And that's it! With the knowledge of how to harmonize each of the seven diatonic modes, and what chords from this harmonized mode to use in your progressions, you're all set to make your own modal vamps to play melodies over! Next week, we'll be looking into the last piece of theory the Ultimate Guide to Guitar has to offer to you... Until then, keep practicing vigorously!
PS: Once again:
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